CSIR - UGC / NET
Introduction CSIR JRF/NET

• CSIR stands for Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India which provides Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) to those who qualify the joint CSIR-UGC Joint Entrance Test for Junior Research Fellowship and Eligibility for Lectureship (LS) i.e. National Eligibility Test (NET) conducted by CSIR twice in a year. The EMR Division under Human Resource and Development (HRD) Group of CSIR provide CSIR Research Fellowship to bright young men and women for training in methods of research under the expert guidance of faculty members /scientists working in University Departments/ National Laboratories and Institutes in various fields of Science & Technology and Medical Sciences. The CSIR Fellowships are tenable in India. Only bonafide Indian citizens, residing in India are eligible for the award of research Fellowship.

Eligibility for CSIR JRF/NET

• The age limit for JRF (NET) is minimum 19 years and maximum 28 years, which is relaxed upto 5 years in the case of candidates belonging to Schedule Castes/Schedule Tribes, Women, Physically Handicapped and OBC applicants. However for LS (NET) there is no upper age.

• Candidates who have M.Sc. or Equivalent degree in life science with minimum 55% marks for General & OBC candidates; 50% for SC/ST, Physically and Visually Handicapped candidates and Ph.D. degree holders who had passed Master's degree prior to 19th September 1991 are eligible.

• A candidate who is appearing or has appeared in his/her final year (III/IV Semester where Semester system is there) of M.Sc. OR equivalent Degree Examination during the academic Session 2008-2009 can also apply for the Test under RA (Result Awaited) category. Such candidates are admitted to the Test provisionally. They shall only be considered eligible for JRF-(NET)/LS-(NET), if they are able to produce the proof of having passed the Master's Degree examination in the life science with the requisite percentage of marks and within the stipulated time frame

Stipend, Tenure and Benefits of CSIR JRF/NET

The stipend of a JRF selected through the all India test will be Rs 25000/ p.m for a period of 2 years. In addition, annual contingent grant of Rs. 20,000/- per fellow will be provided to the University / Institution.

• On Completion of two years as JRF, the stipend may be increased to Rs. 28000/- p.m for the 3rd and subsequent year, on the basis of assessment of Fellows' research progress/ achievements through interview by an Expert Committee consisting of the Guide, Head of the Department and External Member from outside the University/ Institution who is an expert in the relevant field. On up gradation, the designation of JRF will be changed to SRF (NET). The total tenure as JRF (NET) plus SRF (NET) shall not exceed 5 years.

• For any candidate it is quite difficult to get entry into the Research and Development department of any industry. However, candidate who is having fellowship may get entry to pursue PhD quite easily.

• There are certain laboratories which prefer to take only those candidates who are having either CSIR or UGC fellowship. This is a great opportunity for the candidate to get absolved in these types of industries.

Benefits

• Candidates qualifying for the award of JRF (NET) will receive fellowship either from CSIR or UGC as per their assignment or from the schemes with which they may find association.

• This Test also determines the eligibility of candidates for Lectureship positions in Indian Universities/Colleges.

• Some aspirants are declared successful in eligibility for Lectureship (NET) category only, based on their performance in the test.
From June, 2011 CSIR-UGC (NET) Exam for Award of Junior Research Fellowship and Eligibility for Lecturership shall be a Single Paper Test of 3 hours and with maximum marks of 200, having Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs). The question paper is divided in three parts

Part 'A'

This part shall carry 20 questions pertaining to General Science, Quantitative Reasoning & Analysis and Research Aptitude. The candidates shall be required to answer any 15 questions. Each question shall be of two marks. The total marks allocated to this section shall be 30 out of 200.

Part 'B'

This part shall contain 50 Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs) generally covering the topics given in the syllabus. A candidate shall be required to answer any 35 questions. Each question shall be of two marks. The total marks allocated to this section shall be 70 out of 200.

Part 'C'

This part shall contain 75 questions that are designed to test a candidate's knowledge of scientific concepts and/or application of the scientific concepts. The questions shall be of analytical nature where a candidate is expected to apply the scientific knowledge to arrive at the solution to the given scientific problem. A candidate shall be required to answer any 25 questions. Each question shall be of four marks. The total marks allocated to this section shall be 100 out of 200.

There will be negative marking @25% for each wrong answer.

To enable the candidates to go through the questions, the question paper booklet shall be distributed 15 minutes before the scheduled time of the exam. The Answer sheet shall be distributed at the scheduled time of the exam.

On completion of the exam i.e. at the scheduled closing time of the exam, the candidates shall be allowed to carry the Question Paper Booklet. No candidate is allowed to carry the Question Paper Booklet in case he/she chooses to leave the test before the scheduled closing time.

BENEFITS OF NET/JRF

Candidates qualifying for the award of JRF (NET) will receive fellowship either from CSIR or UGC as per their assignment. The stipend of a JRF selected through the all India test will be Rs 25000/ p.m. + HRA for a period of 2 years. In addition, annual contingent grant of Rs. 20,000/- per fellow will be provided to the University / Institution. On Completion of two years as JRF, the stipend may be increased to Rs. 28000/- p.m. for the 3rd and subsequent year, on the basis of assessment of Fellow's research progress. The total tenure as JRF (NET) plus SRF (NET) shall not exceed 5 years.

This Test also determines the eligibility of candidates for Lectureship positions in Indian Universities/Colleges.

There are certain laboratories which prefer to take only those candidates who are having either CSIR or UGC fellowship. This is a great opportunity for the candidate to get absolved in these types of industries.

Some aspirants are declared successful in eligibility for Lectureship (NET) category only, based on their performance in the test.

Regular Classroom Programme

Regular classroom programme is a highly comprehensive and unique programme for CSIR-JRF-NET/GATE as well as DBT-JRF/ICMR/ICAR. This programme offers you the right mix of classes, problem solving and doubt sessions supplemented with in-depth, thoroughly revised study material. This will help you develop comprehensive understanding of concepts and their applications. You will be given periodic tests which will be supplemented by test analysis sessions. This will not only give you a feedback but also develop the examination temperament.

Course structure

• Right mix of classes, problem solving and doubt clearing sessions.
• Comprehensive and thoroughly revised study material.
• Periodic tests on the latest pattern.
• Regular feedback and test analysis sessions.
• Chapter practice problems

Commencement of programme

Winter session (for exam held in December) - First week of January & First week of February
Monsoon session (for exam held in June) - First week of July & First week of August

Duration and time of classes

Classes will be held five days a week (except during national holidays) for 4/5 hours each time. The duration of the entire course will be 5 months. In this short period entire syllabus of Paper I and Paper II will be covered.

CORRESPONDENCE PROGRAMME

The correspondence programmes offered by Bio Re Inventors are very comprehensive in context and treatment but also highly focused and organized to optimize success. Programmes are specially designed to provide you strong competencies on subjects and develop confidence in basics, problem solving skills and a competitive advantage.

Under correspondence programme we provide:
1. Study Material (subjective)
2. Test & Evaluation (Test Series)
Leading Research Institutes of India where one can apply after qualifying JRF

• IISc. Bangalore
• IT-Bombay
• IIT-Delhi
• IIT-Kharagpur
• IIT-Roorkee
• ICGEB, New Delhi
• Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology
• IARI
• Central Drug Research Institute
• ACBR, Delhi University:
• Delhi University South Campus:
• NCPGR, New Delhi
• Institute of Virology
• National Chemical Laboratory
• Central Food Technological Research Institute
• Cancer Research Institute
• Biotech Consortium India Limited (BCIL)
• Birla Institute of Scientific Research (BISR)
• Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering
• Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
• All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, INDIA
• Jawaharlal Nehru University
• National Chemical Laboratory - Your Partner from Concept to Market
• Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore
• Website of Bose Institute, Kolkata
• Tata Memorial Centre
• Biotech Consortium India Limited
• Birla Institute of Scientific Research
• Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering
• Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP)
• Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB)
• Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and DNA Diagnostics (CDFD)
• Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
• Food and Drug Toxicology Research Centre (FDTRC)
• Forest Research Institute (FRI)
• Genetic Research Centre
• Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (HBCSE)
• Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)
• Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)
• Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT)
• Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH):
• Institute of Applied Medicine and Research
• Institute of Life Sciences
• Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH)
• Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research
• National Academy of Agricultural Sciences
• National Brain Research Centre (NBRC)
• National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources:
• National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources
• National Bureau of Plant and Genetic Resource
• National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS)
• National Centre for Laboratory Animal Science (NCLAS)
• National Centre for Plant Genome Research
• National Centre of Cell Science (NCCS)
• National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI)
• National Environmental Engineering research Inst.
1. MOLECULES AND THEIR INTERACTION RELAVENT TO BIOLOGY
2. CELLULAR ORGANIZATION
3. FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES
4. CELL COMMUNICATION AND CELL SIGNALING
5. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
6. SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY - PLANT
7. SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY - ANIMAL
8. INHERITANCE BIOLOGY
9. DIVERSITY OF LIFE FORMS
10. ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
11. EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOUR
12. APPLIED BIOLOGY
13. METHODS IN BIOLOGY
We advise you not to buy substandard preparatory books for CSIR NET JRF preparation. They will charge you too much and you wont get your basics right. So below we are presenting a list of Books which must be referred so that you can build a sound foundation in life sciences and in the meanwhile get through you PhD entrance Examination also.

Name of the standard books

1. Cell and Molecular Biology
2. Molecular Biology of Cells
3. Molecular Cell Biology
4. Molecular Biology of the Gene
5. Molecular Biotechnology
6. Principles of Gene Manipulations
7. Genomes
8. Molecular Cloning: A laboratory manual
9. Genetics: Principles and Analysis
10. Enzymes
11. Biochemistry
12. Principles of Biochemistry
13. Kuby Immunology
14. Essential Immunology
15. Ecology
16. Evolution
17. Text Book of Medical Physiology
18. Cell and Molecular Biology (concepts & experiments)
19. Microbiology
20. Plant Physiology
21. Biology
22. Genetics
23. Physics
24. Chemistry
In this article by Bio Re Inventors we are going to discuss the test taking strategies for CSIR NET JRF Life Science Coaching exam. It has been long on the demand list from the student side for tips on this topic. So we are going to reveal it here.

Syllabus

If you take a quick look at the syllabus for CSIR NET JRF exam, you would notice that not only topics related to a particular stream, but whole of the life sciences has been included. Well that is unfair on the syllabus part, but yes when it is common to all life sciences candidates it does makes sense.

Try to cover almost of the entire syllabus, but it's obviously difficult, in that case you may restrict yourself to certain topics which appear interesting to you. But remember you must have knowledge of the topic to its minute levels. This will help you in clearing your interview (in selected Ph.D entrances like TIFR, IISc., ICGEB, CCMB etc). I remember when I had interview in IISC Bangalore, I was asked to choose my strongest topic & questions were asked in a brain storming forty five minute session.

Some of the topics while preparation may appear boring to you e.g. Developmental Biology & Animal Behaviour or you might not know where to study it from, in that case try to first make your other areas stronger, then only move to these topics. Don't over waste time preparing any topic, as the paper is quite balanced.

Preparation

Ideally the preparation should start three and half months before exam, but that means you must stick to a particular schedule. If you are an appearing candidate I would suggest starting in the third semester itself (provided if you want to clear JRF).

Solve sample papers as much as you can, well that is a typical advice to any competition aspirant, I would suggest to get in to the details ( theory part) as soon as you come through the questions.

If you are an appearing candidate, then try to co-relate the questions from the theory part, Remember, it doesnt matter how much your university awards you, rather a JRF would REALLY MATTER, so devote as much time as possible to get in to the subjects & concepts. They emphasize concepts rather than mugging up & vomiting data. Leave the habit of flipping through books while preparing, cultivate the habit of writing/making notes as it makes one more organised for the challenge.

Exam

Again comes the question which one to stress for more, Paper 1 or 2 ? Well I would suggest you to concentrate more on paper 2 but remember passing in Paper 1 is very important, so make sure you strike a fair balance. During exam- I would suggest not to panic, rather stick to your basics while answering, because most questions are from basics but we tend to complicate it.

Try not to solve all questions rather try to gain confidence by answering questions which you know first in case of paper 1. In paper 2 just cram through the paper what it contains and how much you know, don't panic if you don't Know, try to stick to the word limit while answering, be to the point and quote examples.

How to Avoid a Disaster?

Though we cannot say anything about the cut off marks, experience tells that one has to score well in Paper I to get JRF. At the same time leave your thoughts about the performance in the Paper I back and do well in the afternoon session with a clear and sound mind. Some may have a tendency to throw it up feeling dejected about your performance during the day. Let us wait the results to come before making disastrous assumptions to spoil your day. Also be cool in your approach to the exam and never give up during the examination by doing things like answering all the multiple choice questions randomly based on luck feeling dejected of your performance. There is plenty of time to be prepared and perform well. And from experience, many have come out successfully even after believing that they did perform very poorly.

In examination with objective type multiple choice questions (MCQs), there is a tendency called the (Red Wire Syndrome) which means to answer all questions whether one knows the correct answer or not. If we can classify the questions into three categories, viz. 1) Sure, 2) Not So Sure and 3) Never, indicating whether one knows the correct answer, possible but some doubt still prevails and almost impossible, respectively. The (red wire syndrome) means that one will have tendency to answer all the questions, which is disastrous, just like a child who touches "red hot wire" seeing its beauty. The key to success lies in answering all the "Sure" types, and leaving out the "Never" types. It is imperative to learn the art of intelligent guessing to answer the type 2. This evidently comes from one's experience and basic knowledge of the subject. So never ever find it insulting to go back to your basics (atleast refer to some of the basic books). So never forget practice well using previous question papers of NET JRF to make you come out with flying colours.

After Exam

Well your work is not yet over, try to recollect the questions and write it down, if that is not possible try to demarcate the topics which were stressed specifically, this would of immense help in case if you do not clear. Also joining a credible coaching institute could streamline you, and keep one motivated. Check the credentials of the institute and teachers before joining.
BIOTECH ENTRANCE
Biotechnology is one of the world's newest and most important applied sciences of the 21st century. It embraces basic sciences like Physics, Chemistry, Maths as well as engineering technology depending upon its application. Biotechnology is recognized as a discipline where basic and applied sciences work together. It is a research oriented science, a combination of Biology and Technology and covers a wide variety of subjects like Genetics, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Immunology, Virology, Chemistry, Engineering and subjects like Health and Medicine, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Cropping system and Crop Management, Ecology, Cell Biology and Bio-statistics etc. If there is any area of science that will flourish after Information technology, then it is biotechnology. The multibillion dollar biotechnology industry in a broad sense uses organisms, cells or molecules isolated to make products or processes having large applications benefiting the sectors of health, agriculture, animal resources, aquaculture, energy, forest, environments etc. In nutshell we can say that biotechnology includes manipulation of organisms on the molecular and genetic level to improve health, safety, nutrition and environment.

There is a great scope in this field as the demand for biotechnologists is growing both at home and abroad. Job opportunities extend to Universities, medical colleges and government labs. Careers in biotechnology tend to be related to Research and development, Quality control, Clinical Research, Manufacturing and Production, Patent administration, Management and Administration, Hospital laboratories, Academic Research laboratories, Forensics, Environmental cleanup and Bioinformatics. The industries offer rewarding career for students interested in science and engineering. A well established biotechnology company usually has several products that carry different functions and uses biotechnology in pharmaceuticals, agriculture, chemicals, environmental remediation and energy sector. The biotechnology degree holder can find suitable placements in such establishments.
Regular Classroom Programme

The classroom programmes offered by Bio Re Inventors are comprehensive in nature, highly focused and organized to optimize success. The programme offers right mix of classes, problem solving and doubt sessions supplemented with in-depth, and thoroughly revised study material. Subjects covered under this course are Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics (optional). The subjects are divided into units and class tests will be held after completion of each unit. In addition to classroom teaching, a well researched study material is given to students. After completion of syllabus, similar tests will be held on the pattern of different entrance examinations like JNU, IIT-JAM, IISc. Bangalore, AIIMS Biotech etc. Classroom Course can be attended in anyone way.

One Year Regular Classroom Course

This course is designed for B.Sc. passed students. Classes are to be held 5 days /week and 3-5 hours /day. This course commences from 5th July and 2nd batch from 18th July. Entire course is completed by the end of February/March.

Correspondance Course

The correspondence programmes offered by Bio Re Inventors lay emphasis on fundamental concepts and analytical skills. The study material is very comprehensive in nature, highly focused and organized to optimize success. Study material is designed to provide one with strong command over subject, problem solving skills and a competitive edge.This course has proved to be popular with students who prefer self study, those who want to work at their own pace. The correspondence course consists of

1. Study Material
2. Test series
3. Past Year Solved Papers of various Exams.
Careers in Biotech after Graduation:

After a B.Tech or a B.Sc. in biotechnology there are various opportunities for students in India , You can either go for higher studies like M.tech, M.Sc. or PhD degrees for improving your skills and up gradation of your degree or you can go for jobs in the biotech companies, research institutes ,Pharmacy companies ,even universities and colleges.

There is a big scope in sales department of biotech companies making tools and machines for research, these companies hire graduates for their marketing and sales. Here salary ranges from 15-25 thousand.

One Year Regular Classroom Course

This course is designed for B.Sc. passed students. Classes are to be held 5 days /week and 3-5 hours /day. This course commences from 5th July and 2nd batch from 18th July. Entire course is completed by the end of February/March.

Correspondance Course

The correspondence programmes offered by Bio Re Inventors lay emphasis on fundamental concepts and analytical skills. The study material is very comprehensive in nature, highly focused and organized to optimize success. Study material is designed to provide one with strong command over subject, problem solving skills and a competitive edge.This course has proved to be popular with students who prefer self study, those who want to work at their own pace. The correspondence course consists of

1. Study Material
2. Test series
3. Past Year Solved Papers of various Exams.

Career Prospects in Biotechnology after Post-Graduation:

After post graduation in biotechnology students generally go for PhD through net gate JRFs or MBA for establishing themselves in business industry.

After M.Sc. in biotechnology students are hired to work as project assistants at research institute or research fellows ,they are generally paid from 20,000-30,000 in govt. Institutes. Here they are required to assist and work on a particular project this makes them gain experience and move ahead in research field.

In corporate sector student with higher capabilities are selected for deserving positions e.g. Biocon .These companies also do campus recruitment where students get a better chance to demonstrate their skills.

Various positions for postgraduates are:

Research assistant

Quality control engineer

Clinical programmer

Biochemical Development Engineer

Lectureships and assistant professorship

IISc Banglore
TIFR, Mumbai / NCBS, Banglore
AIIMS, New Delhi
IIT-JAM (Mumbai/Roorkee)
University of Delhi South campus, New Delhi
Madurai Kamraj University, Madurai
Combined Biotechnology Entrance Examination
JNU, New Delhi
PGI, Chandigarh
AMU
Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi
Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
ACBR, New Delhi
University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad
BHU, Varanasi
Devi Ahilya Bai University, Indore
Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) combined M.Sc. Entrance Exam
TERI (Tata Energy Research Institute), New Delhi
Bhartiya Vidyapeeth University, Pune (Deemed Univ.)
University of Baroda, Gujarat
Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi
Banasthali University, Rajasthan
Forest Research Institute (Deemed University), Dehradun
IIT-JAM Biotechnology - Syllabus
BIOLOGY (10+2+3 level) weightage: 44%
CHEMISTRY (10+2+3 level) weightage: 20%
MATHEMATICS (10+2 level) weightage: 18%
PHYSICS (10+2 level ) weightage: 18%

JNU combined Biotechnology entrance examination - Syllabus

There is no defined or prescribed syllabus for JNU biotech entrance examinations. The Question Paper for Entrance Examination is divided into two parts: Part A contains 60 questions from Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics and there is no choice between Mathematics and Biology. All questions are compulsory. Part B contains 100 questions from Physics (20), Chemistry (20), Mathematics (20) and Biology (40). Student has the choice to answer any 60 questions.

IISc, Biological Sciences entrance examination - Syllabus

General Biology
Basics of Biochemistry, Biophysics, Molecular biology
Microbiology and Cell biology
Bio Re Inventors Provides Study Material For Preparation of Your Examination. Apart with this we advise you not to buy substandard preparatory books for preparation. They will charge you too much and you wont get your basics right. So below we are presenting a list of Books which must be referred so that you can build a sound foundation in life sciences.

1. Cell and Molecular Biology
2. Molecular Cell Biology
3. Molecular Biology of the Gene
4. Principles of Gene Manipulations
5. Genomes
6. Principles of Biochemistry
7. Kuby Immunology
8. Basic Ecology
9. Evolution
10. Text Book of Medical Physiology
11. Cell and Molecular Biology (concepts & experiments)
12. Genetics
13. Microbiology
14. Plant Physiology
15. Biology
16. Physics
17. Chemistry
Q. What is the scope for M.Sc. in bioinformatics & which are the best institutes for it?

Ans. Bioinformatics deals with methods for storing, retrieving and analyzing biological data. Bioinformatics as a field of study is becoming increasingly important due to the interest of the pharmaceutical industry in genome sequencing projects, which comprise a key segment of the discipline. Bioinformatics uses computer software tools for database creation, data management, data warehousing, data mining and global communication network. For admission into Bio-informatics course, a postgraduate degree in Biotechnology, Physics, Mathematics, chemistry, Microbiology, Botany, zoology, Agriculture or Veterinary Sciences is required. Those with an MCA degree or Engineering degree can also apply. One needs to be either a biologist with a certain degree of computer knowledge edge or a computer professional with a serious interest in biology. For increased career opportunities, possessing both skill-sets is a good idea though employers usually desire knowledge in computer applications. Some of the institutes who offer advanced courses are: Madurai Kamraj Univ., Madurai; Indian Institute of Technology (Delhi, Mumbai, Kharagpur, Kanpur); University of Pune, Pune; Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh; Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore; B.H.U. Varanasi; Bose Institute, Kolkata; Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad; Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi; Bioinformatics Institute of India, Delhi; CCS Univ., Meerut; Pondicherry Univ., Pondicherry, Instt. of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology G-05, Tech Park Mall, ITPL, Whitefield Road, Bangalore-560066. For M.Sc. the requirement is B.Sc. (Biology Group) and for P.G. Diploma, the eligibility is generally M.Sc. in any branch of Biological Sciences e.g. Botany, Zoology, Biochemistry, Biophysics, M.B.B.S., M.E., M.C.A., M.V.Sc. Bioinformatics as a profession is coming into wave in various developed as well as developing countries. Persons trained in Bio-Informatics are welcome especially in companies related to drug development, chemicals, hybrid plants, petroleum derivatives. Bio-Informatics plays a key role in arising new research outputs. There are enormous prospects in R D Organisations, software companies and Govt. organizations. Bio Informatics Industry requires experts from various fields like Micro Biology, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Bio-statistics, Maths, Graphics designing and Genomics etc.

Q. Please give me information about medical transcription course. I am interested in naturopathy give guidelines ?

Ans. Medical transcription is the process of converting a health care providers dictated (or handwritten) notes into accurate, readable records. Medical transcription requires a practical knowledge of medical terminology, anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and the internal organization of medical reports. Thus, the medical transcriptionist must be conversant with the language of medicine and surgery, but this relates to allopathic medicine, not naturopathy. Medical Transcription as a business is classified as an IT enabled service in India and is also part of BPO (Business Process Outsourcing). Advertisements of medical transcription training appear in the prominent dailies and may also be tracked on the internet. You could find out about the Naturopathy courses and other related information from the website of the National Institute of Naturopathy, Pune (http://www.punenin.org/faq.htm). Normally, the Bachelor of Naturopathy and Yogic Sciences is the formal training for naturopathy. You can find out more by contacting the Central Council for Research in Yoga and Naturopathy, 61-65 Institutional Area, Janakpuri, New Delhi-110058 (www.ccryn.org).

Q. I did my BSc in zoology from Mumbai university and am hoping to get a admission in M.Sc Environmental Science. Does the feild have scope here in India ?

Ans. The field has scope in India, but unless the university offers direct placement from campus, you would have to be responsible for the job search. It may not be easy to locate jobs for fresh post graduates. Pursuing a PhD or MTech would enhance employment potential and provide long term prospects. You could also pursue MSc Biotech or MSc Bioinformatics, etc but the choice of employment from these courses would also tend to be in research or academia. Hence you have to be sure that you have the passion, enthusiasm and ability to pursue such careers.

Q. Dear Sir, I am doing B.Sc Microbiology 1sy Year. I want to know the best Universities/Institutes for doing M.Sc Microbiology. Also please guide about the career options other than teaching, after doing M.Sc OR Graduation.

Ans. University of Mumbai, Delhi University, Madras University, M S University of Baroda, Madurai Kamaraj University, etc. Microbiologists are employed by diagnostic laboratories public health laboratories, or they may pursue research in universities, medical institutes, pharmaceutical companies, research and development laboratories in the private sector, as well as in government departments relating to animal health, community health, environment, agriculture and allied areas. Microbiologists may perform quality control as well as undertake clinical research.

Q. kindly give me details regarding M.Sc courses which can be pursued after B.Sc in microbiology particularly in the field of genetics, immunology and other related areas. kindly give me the details of institutions offering the courses throughout India. Thanking you?

Ans. Postgraduate degree in genetics/ allied subjects may be pursued at some of the agricultural universities, University Of Delhi, Somalia University , Hyderabad, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, University of Kerala, ,Thiruvananthpuram, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata, etc. M Sc in Human Genetics is offered in only a few universities like Jiwaji University Gwalior (http://www.jiwaji.edu/sos/zoology.htm), Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam(www.andhrauniversity.info/science/humangenetics/default.aspx), Mani pal University, Maniple (www.manipal.edu), Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai (www.srmc.edu), Guru Nanak Dev University,Amritsar(http://www.gnduonline.org/department/human.asp) and at National Centre for Human Genome Studies & Research,PanjabUniversity, Chandigarh (http://nchgsr.puchd.ac.in/). Immunology is usually offered as a PhD programme after a biological science (including medicine, veterinary science and pharmacy) post graduation. It would not be possible for you to apply for universities across the country because the admission norms and entrance exam (where required) schedules would be difficult to coordinate. Hence, the best course of action would be to focus on the universities which offer admission based on a national level entrance test.

Q. I am studying in B.Sc. Microbiology I wanna do my post graduation in M.Sc biotechnology am i eligible for it or not. If I am kindly send me detail of colleges?

Ans. In most cases, you would be eligible for M.Sc Biotech. If you appear for the Common Biotechnology Entrance Examination by the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi you would be able to apply for M.Sc Biotech across many of the participating universities. Other universities may have their own selection process. The JNU website would provide links to the various participating universities and give you a choice of universities where your BSc background would enable you to apply for the MSc Biotech programme.

Q. Sir, I have done B.Sc.(Bio). I want to know about clinical research programme. plz tell me the name of institutions providing the course and the future prospects?

Ans. Academy for Clinical Excellent (www.aceindia.org), Altair Institute of Communication & Management Studies, Mumbai (www.aicmsindia.org), Institute of Clinical Research (India) (www.icriindia.com), International Center for Training in Clinical Research, (ICTCR) (www.ictcr.org) Clinical Research Education & Management Academy (CREMA) (www.cremaindia.org), MGM University of Health Sciences, Navi Mumbai (www.mgmuhs.com), Inter-Ed Faculty of Clinical Research, Kochi (www.ifcr.in or www.ifcr.info) , Bilcare Research Academy, Pune (www.bilcareacademy.com), Nucleus Institute of Clinical Research (NICR) (www.nucleuspune.org) and Reliance School of Life Sciences, Dhirubhai Ambani Life Sciences Center, Navi Mumbai (www.rsls.ac.in) are among the institutions providing clinical research courses.Future prospects are projected to be good. Your decision to pursue clinical research should be based on a clear understanding of the nature of work and the fact that you possess the right abilities and personality traits for success in this field.

Q. What are the opportunities for Environmental Science Students especially in agricultural background?

Ans. On completion of your education in the field of environmental sciences, you may get jobs in the areas of teaching research and development, pollution control etc. Some of the possibilities considering your background in Agricultural are listed below:-

Lecturers Those who have a post- Graduate degree in any field of Environmental Sciences and with a Doctoral work may take up the teaching profession as a lecturer in the pay scale of Rs. 35000-40,000 as per the Govt. pay scales. They are supposed to take graduate or post-graduate classes of environmental related subjects such as air water quality management, environmental ecology, industrial waste treatment, environmental chemistry etc. They are also expected to guide students that are involved in environmental related research. Lecturers are also appointed in Research Institutes that impart education in this field. Ecologists study environmental influences such as temperature, rainfall, altitude, kind and quality of food etc. and their effects on plant or animal growth and development. They run experimental farms or laboratories under natural and artificial conditions to watch effects of climatic conditions on crops, plants and animals. The industries that deal with synthetic dyes, pesticides, metals, minerals, plastic dust or plastics etc. employ environmentalists to comply environmental control provisions in the plant.

They are designated as Manager (Ecology), Environmental Planner etc. One should be a graduate in Environmental Eng. or a post graduate in Environmental Science for these posts. Scientists involved in toxicity testing and evaluation of industrial chemicals and products are supposed to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of pollution control systems. They are involved in applied research in order to develop new concepts relevant to the Environment sector. They also promote research and development in the related areas such as Wild Life Science, Social Forestry etc. One should be a post-graduate with a doctoral degree in the concerned field for being eligible for the posts of Scientists Research Officers/Project Officers/Consultants Those who have academic excellence in the field of Environmental science may work as project officer, research officers or as consultants. They are concerned with educating masses and making them aware about natural environment. For the purpose they conduct training programme for teachers and other concerned persons.

They are also employed to look after a specified research project relating to environmental issues. Highly qualified persons who work as consultants get very handsome salaries which are negotiable. Jobs are available in Research Institutes and Government Departments that deal with environmental problems. The private organisations that are concerned with these issues also employ these people. Technicians/ Research Assistants Technicians help Engineers and Scientists in their day to day working. Lab Assistants, for example, look after the equipments/chemicals in the laboratory. They perform testing of chemicals etc. as directed by their supervisors. They are also responsible for cleaning the apparatus. ResearchAssistants in this field collect, compile and analyse the scientific data pertaining to multidisciplinary aspects of environmental protection. One should have a Master's degree in any branch of Environmental Sciences or Bachelors degree in Environmental Engineering. Those who have experience get preference. Since the subject of environmental science is a multidisciplinary subject, jobs are available in several other fields also. These may be the jobs of Environmental planner in Housing and Town Planning Sectors, Foresters in Forestry Sector etc.

Q. Please let me know the vacancies for a fresh B.Sc. Graduate with First Class in Biotechnology?

Ans. In recent times, biotechnology as a subject has grown rapidly. And as far as employment is concerned, it has become the second fastest growing sector after multi-media. Candidates with postgraduate degree in biotechnology get absorbed in corporate and government sector, both. Qualified biotechnologists are employed in leading Indian business houses and MNCs including pharmaceutical companies, chemical industries, bio-processing industries, agriculture related industries and pollution control activities of the major industries etc. They can even join government and corporate run research and development organizations. On the whole making it a good career opportunity for the bright young people. Internet should be your primary source of search for job positions in the biotechnology field apart from the vacancy circulars in newspapers, Employment News and placement agencies. You may also access www.careerage.com for the relevant information.
GATE
(GATE) The Graduate Aptitude Test in Enginering

GATE is an All-India examination conducted by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc.) Bangalore and Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) on behalf of the National Coordinating Board- GATE, Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD), Government of India.


OBJECTIVE

The objective of GATE is to identify meritorious and motivated candidates for admission in Postgraduate Programmes in Engineering at the national level. Some Engineering Colleges/Institutes specify GATE as a mandatory qualification for admission for Postgraduate Programmes. For doing M.Tech. and Ph.D programme from IIT, IISc. and other reputed institutes one should have GATE score. The GATE qualified students are given their all India Rank (also percentile). On the basis of this score one has to apply to the institutes.


ELIGIBILITY

The following categories of candidates are eligible to appear in GATE

Master degree holders in any branch of Science/ Mathematics/ Statistics/ Computer Applications or equivalent and those who are in the final or pre-final year of such programmes.

Bachelor degree holders in Engineering/ Technology/ Architecture (4 years after 10+2) and those who are in the final or pre-final year of such programmes.

Candidates in the second or higher year of the Four-year Integrated Master degree programme (Post-B.Sc.) in Engineering/ Technology or in the third or higher year of Five-year Integrated Master degree programme and Dual Degree programme in Engineering/ Technology.

Candidates with qualifications obtained through examinations conducted by professional societies recognised by UPSC/AICTE (e.g. AMIE by IE(I), AMICE(I) by the Institute of Civil Engineers (India)-ICE(I)) as equivalent to B.E./B.Tech. Those who have completed section A or equivalent of such professional courses are also eligible.


EXAMINATION STRUCTURE

The GATE examination consists of a single paper of 3 hours duration, which contains 65 questions carrying a maximum of 100 marks. The question paper will consist of only multiple choice objective questions. Each question will have four choices for the answer. There will be negative marking for each wrong answer, as explained in Question Paper Pattern.


VALIDITY OF GATE SCORE

GATE score is valid for TWO YEARS from the date of announcement of the GATE results.


BENEFITS OF GATE

After publication of GATE results, students are eligible to apply to individual Institutes for admission. Admission in the Institute is based on GATE percentile.

Results of qualified candidates in GATE will give All India Rank and indicate percentile score. For example, a percentile score of 99 means you are in the top 1% category of the candidates who appeared. Candidates who get less than 70 percentile get no score card.

During the pursuit of M.Tech/Ph.D one is paid a scholarship of Rs. 5000 per month by the Government of India. This amount is enough for living expenses including purchase of books etc. the scholarship is paid for the entire period of M.Tech/Ph.D.

REGULAR CLASSROOM PROGRAMME

Regular classroom programme is a highly comprehensive and unique programme for GATE under guidance of expert faculties from various fields. The Programme is available for GATE 'BIOTECHNOLOGY' and for all subjects of GATE 'LIFE SCIENCE'. This programme offers you the right mix of classes, problem solving and doubt sessions supplemented with in-depth, and thoroughly revised study material. This will help you develop comprehensive understanding of concepts and their applications. You will be given periodic tests which will be supplemented by test analysis sessions. This will not only give you a feedback but also develop the examination temperament.

WEEKEND CLASSROOM PROGRAMME

This highly comprehensive course is designed for B.Tech. III/IV year students. Classes shall be held only on Saturdays and Sundays and 5-6 hours/day. This course commences from last week of July and concludes by mid of January. The IIIyear students can continue to have classes in final year also, if they wish.

CORRESPONDENCE PROGRAMMES

The correspondence programmes offered by Bio Re Inventors for all subjects of GATE 'LIFE SCIENCE' and 'GATE' BIOTECHNOLOGY are very comprehensive in context and treatment but also highly focused and organized to optimize success. Programmes are specially designed to provide you strong competencies on subjects and develop confidence in basics, problem solving skills and a competitive advantage.
This is a repeated question from students at Bio Re Inventors asking whether they need to give CSIR NET JRF exam after qualifying GATE for a Ph.D. Many of you seem unaware of this fact that CSIR has a separate option for you if you have qualified GATE with high percentile/Rank. This is popularly known as GATE-JRF. JRF,s selected under this scheme have excellent opportunity to work with the CSIR scientists with state-of-art R&D facility and obtain PhD degree. These fellowships are tenable only at CSIR laboratories.

WHO CAN APPLY

Fresh BE / B.Tech degree holders with valid GATE score. The selected candidates will have to pursue Ph.D. There can be two possibilities under this:

a. Get direct admission to Ph.D programme of University/ IIT/ NIT/REC etc.

b. After joining as JRF-GATE, the candidate may pursue M.Tech as a part of Ph.D programme, where their thesis semester (last semester) should be spent at the CSIR laboratory relating to lab specialization in order to keep the continuity for the Ph.D programme.

c. Those who are starting the thesis semester of M.Tech programme and having valid GATE score and desirous of pursuing Ph.D.It may be noted that these candidates have to work on their PhD problem and should not be employed in sponsored projects.

SELECTION PROCEDURE

Selection of these GATE qualified JRF's can be done by the Director of the CSIR laboratories and forwarded to Head, HRDG for the issue of requisite award letters. Director may permit the candidate to provisionally join JRF-GATE subject to meeting the eligibility criteria and issue of formal award letter from HRDG.

WHO ARE NOT ELIGIBLE

M.Tech candidates (either with B.Tech/ M.Tech or with M.Sc/ M.Tech) are not eligible for this fellowship. They have a separate opportunity for direct SRF through interview. All those eligible for direct CSIR SRF cannot apply for this fellowship.

STIPEND AND TENURE

The fellowship is to be given to a candidate for a total duration of five years within which the candidate is required to complete the PhD degree. This fellowship amount is Rs 16000/- plus HRA per month. In addition, contingency grant of Rs 20,000/- per annum (calculated on pro rata basis for fraction of a year) is available to each fellowship as per the CSIR guidelines.

Further on completion of two years as JRF-GATE, the fellowship may be upgraded to SRF-GATE and stipend may be increased to Rs 18000/- per month in the subsequent years on the basis of assessment as per normal CSIR rules. In exceptional cases where the fellow has completed M.Tech within one year of joining JRF-GATE, the Director may assess the performance of the fellow (through a three member assessment committee) and recommend upgradation of the fellowship to SRF-GATE. All other conditions of JRF-NET will apply.

BIOTECHNOLOGY-BT
LIFE SCIENCES- XL
SYLLABUS (LIFE SCIENCES - XL)

CHEMISTRY (Compulsory)

SUBJECTS (Choose any 2 Papers out of - Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Zoology)

SECTION I : BIOCHEMISTRY
SECTION J: BOTANY
SECTION K: MICROBIOLOGY
SECTION L: ZOOLOGY
GENERAL APTITUDE:
SYLLABUS

Mathematics

Subject

Microbiology
Biochemistry
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Process Biotechnology
Bioprocess Engineering
Plant and Animal Biotechnology
Characteristics of animal cells
Immunology
Recombinant DNA Technology
Bioinformatics
General Aptitude
Aim for taking GATE exam varies from candidate to candidate. Students from private engineering colleges try to get into M.Tech in order to have stamp of the better known institutions and for them reasonable percentile serves the purpose. On the other hand, students studying in well established institutes may aim to get into IIT or other equivalent institutions. For them very high percentile is essential.

Normally 3 to 4 months of serious study will be sufficient for the preparation.

The GATE examination consists of a single paper of 3 hours duration, which contains 65 questions carrying a maximum of 100 marks. The question paper will consist of only multiple choice objective questions. There will be negative marking for each wrong answer.

Always try to go through the standard books which are easily available and in which you can easily understand the concepts. This will improve your learning ability.

Start preparing from the initial topics i.e. the basic ones and note down the basic concepts (definitions, unit, dimension etc.) as well as necessary theories, formulae etc.

Try to solve as many problems as possible from different book as well as try to find more and more tricks.

Try to apply your own logics and tricks in solving problems and note it down because it will save your time in the examination hall.

Conduct self tests based on various chapters. Continue the self tests and try to achieve a very good score.

Practice more and more problems and follow the same procedure for the rest of the chapters and subjects.

One month before the examination you should start revising the course as many times as possible so that on the day before the exam you will be prepared enough to crack the exam.

In the revision stage concentrate more on the selected topics.

During exam try to attempt section A which is compulsory and that to Q1 carrying one mark each and those in Q2 carrying two marks each.

It is very important to manage the time well during the exam. So manage the time well during the exam, but not at the cost of answering the paper accurately.

Always try to attempt only those questions in which you are pretty confident and you know the answer very well. Apply proper logic before marking the answer.

Do not attempt unnecessary questions in which you are not confident because that may cost you much.

Do not try to get hold of the entire syllabus prescribed by GATE. A selective preparation would be a very helpful concept and should be learned accurately.

Memorization of any problem without a clear idea of the concept will be a futile exercise.

I feel that it is better to have flexible time plan before going to exam and have a balance of mind. It helps in avoiding the silly mistakes.

Results of qualified candidates in GATE will give All India Rank and indicate percentile score. For example, a percentile score of 99 means you are in the top 1% category of the candidates who appeared. Candidates who get less than 70 percentile get no score card.

After publication of GATE results, students must apply to individual Institutes to get their application forms. Admission in the Institute is based on GATE percentile.

GATE 2010 score is valid for TWO YEARS from the date of announcement of the GATE 2010 results.

During the pursuit of M.Tech/Ph.D you are paid a scholarship of Rs. 5000 per month by the Government of India. This amount is enough for living expenses including purchase of books etc. the scholarship is paid for the entire period of M.Tech/Ph.D.

ICMR / ICAR / DBT-JRF
ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) holds a national level examination for determining the eligibility of Indian National candidates for the award of Junior Research Fellowships (JRF) for admission to the Ph.D / Research Programme. The award of JRF is made on merit basis by holding a National level entrance examination. The award of Junior Research Fellowship to the successful eligible candidates will depend on their finding placement in a medical college / hospital / university / national laboratory / institution of higher learning and research as applicable. Test for ICMR JRF fellowship are conducted at the seven centres viz. Chandigarh, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Guwahati and Mumbai once a year.

EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION

1. M.Sc. or equivalent degree with minimum 55% marks for General/OBC candidates and 50% for the SC/ST & physically handicapped candidates in the subjects mentioned under the head method of selection.

2. A candidate who is appearing / has appeared in the final year (IV/VI Semester whichever is applicable, and final year where Semester system is not there) of M.Sc . or Equivalent Examination can also apply for the test as RA (Result Awaited).
GENERAL

DBT JRF programme was started from the year 2004. 250 JRFs are selected through Biotechnology Eligibility Test (BET) conducted by University of Pune, for pursuing research in frontier areas of Biotechnology and Applied Biology. JRFs will be selected according to merit under two categories: Category A and B. Category A fellowships (Top 100 in number) are tenable in any University/Institute in India where the students can register for Ph.D. Category B fellowships (150 in number) are tenable exclusively at the 69 DBT-supported Teaching Centres/Departments running DBT-supported masters programme, and 8 DBT Institutes, where the students can register for Ph.D.

ELIGIBILITY

Candidates who have passed out in the current year or will appear for Master's (M.Sc./ M.Tech./M.V.Sc.) in Biotechnology (various branches, namely General, Agriculture, Medical, Marine, Industrial, Animal, Plant and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Bioprocess Technology), Bioinformatics, Molecular Human Genetics offered at BHU, Human Genomics offered at Panjab University, Neuroscience offered at Jiwaji University, NBRC and TIFR, and B.Tech. Biotechnology (4-year course) recognized by UGC/AICTE are eligible for this award. The applicants should be below the age of 28 years (33 years in case of SC/ST/OBC/PH category and women candidates. Candidates with 60% (55% for reserved categories) of the total marks (equivalent in grade) are eligible.

DETAILS OF THE AWARD

The fellowship will be initially for a period of 3 years extendable for 2 more years based on performance. By the end of 2nd year the performance of JRF will be assessed and will be upgraded to SRF. The fellowship as JRF/SRF will be @ Rs 12,000-14,000 per month + HRA as per host Institute norms, and a research contingency of Rs 30,000 per year.
CORRESPONDENCE
The correspondence programme offered by Bio Re Inventors lay emphasis on fundamental concepts and analytical skills. The study material is very comprehensive in nature, highly focused and organized to optimize success. Study material is designed to provide one with strong command over subject, problem solving skills and a competitive edge. This course has proved to be popular with students who prefer self study, those who want to work at their own pace. The correspondence course consists of

1. Study Material
2. Test series

How to apply for Correspondence Course

The students can collect study material in person by filling up application form, submitting three recent coloured photographs and Xerox mark sheets of XII and current BSc Session, and paying Fee in cash or Demand draft.

The outstation students has to download the application form, from our website, fill it completely, attach three recent coloured photographs, Xerox mark sheets of XII and current BSc Session, and also attach a demand draft made in favour of Bio Re Inventors Academy payable at Delhi and send it to our office. Please note that cheques are not accepted.
The correspondence programmes offered by Bio Re Inventors for CSIR-NET are very detailed in context and treatment but also highly focused and organized to optimize success. Programmes are specially designed to provide you strong competencies on subjects and develop confidence in basics, problem solving skills and a competitive advantage.

Under correspondence programme we provide:

1. Study Material (subjective)
2. Evaluation (Test Series)
The correspondence programmes offered by Bio Re Inventors for GATE-BIOTECHNOLOGY are very comprehensive in context and treatment covering entire syllabus with special emphasis on Bio-process Engineering and its applications (Numerical part), Bioprocess technology, Plant Biotechnology, Bio-informatics and Recombinant Biotechnology. Study material also covers notes on Mathematics and Numerical ability. Programmes are specially designed to provide you strong competencies on subjects and develop confidence in basics, problem solving skills and a competitive advantage.

Under correspondence programme we provide:

1. Study Material (subjective)
2. Test Evaluation (Test Series)